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SAM S-75 Dvina. ЗРК С-75 “Двина”
Saint-Petersburg. Artillery Museum.

The S-75 Dvina (Russian: С-75 NATO reporting name SA-two Guideline) is a Soviet-developed, high-altitude, command guided, surface-to-air missile (SAM). Considering that its very first deployment in 1957 it has turn out to be the most widely-deployed air defense missile in history. It scored the very first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a SAM, shooting down a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China, on October 7, 1959 by hitting it with 3 V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). The accomplishment was attributed to Chinese fighters at the time in order to maintain the S-75 program secret.
This system first gained international fame when an S-75 battery, using the newer, longer-variety and greater-altitude V-750VN (13D) missile shot down the U-two of Francis Gary Powers overflying the Soviet Union on Might 1, 1960.[three] The method was also deployed in Cuba throughout the Cuban Missile Crisis, where on October 27, 1962, it shot down the U-two flown by Rudolf Anderson, practically precipitating nuclear war.[four] North Vietnamese forces utilised the S-75 extensively throughout the Vietnam War to defend Hanoi and Haiphong. It has also been locally made in the People’s Republic of China making use of the names HQ-1 and HQ-2. Other nations have made so numerous local variants combining portions of the S-75 method with each indigenously-created elements or third-celebration systems that it has turn out to be practically not possible to find a pure S-75 technique right now,
Development
In the early 1950s, the United States Air Force rapidly accelerated its improvement of long-range jet bombers carrying nuclear weapons. The USAF system led to the deployment of Boeing B-47 Stratojet supported by aerial refueling aircraft to extend its range deep into the Soviet Union. The USAF quickly followed the B-47 with the development of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, which had greater range and payload than the B-47. The variety, speed, and payload of these U.S. bombers posed a significant threat to the Soviet Union in the event of a war between the two nations.
onsequently, the Soviets initiated the development of improved air defense systems. Though the Soviet Air Defence Forces had large numbers of anti-aircraft artillery (AAA), like radar-directed batteries, the limitations of guns versus higher-altitude jet bombers was obvious. Consequently, the Soviet Air Defense Forces began the improvement of missile systems to replace the World War II-vintage gun defenses.
In 1953, KB-two began the improvement of what became the S-75 under the direction of Pyotr Grushin. This program focused on creating a missile which could bring down a massive, non-maneuvering, higher-altitude aircraft. As such it did not want to be hugely maneuverable, merely fast and able to resist aircraft counter-measures. For such a pioneering program, improvement proceeded rapidly, and testing started a few years later. In 1957, the wider public 1st became conscious of the S-75 when the missile was shown at that year’s May Day parade in Moscow.
Initial deployment
Wide-scale deployment started in 1957, with a variety of upgrades following over the subsequent few years. The S-75 was in no way meant to replace the S-25 Berkut surface-to-air missile internet sites about Moscow, but it did replace higher-altitude anti-aircraft guns, such as the 130 mm KS-30 and one hundred mm KS-19. Between mid-1958 and 1964, U.S. intelligence assets positioned far more than 600 S-75 web sites in the USSR. These internet sites tended to cluster around population centers, industrial complexes, and government manage centers. A ring of sites was also located about likely bomber routes into the Soviet heartland. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet Union had ended the deployment of the S-75 with possibly 1,000 operational sites.
In addition to the Soviet Union, numerous S-75 batteries were deployed for the duration of the 1960s in East Germany to protect Soviet forces stationed in that nation. Later the system was sold to most Warsaw Pact nations and was provided to China, North Korea, and at some point, North Vietnam.
Employment
Although the shooting down of Francis Gary Powers’ U-2 in 1960 is the initial publicized good results for the S-75, the very first aircraft actually shot down by the S-75 was a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra higher-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. In this case, the aircraft was hit by a Chinese-operated S-75 internet site near Beijing on October 7, 1959. Over the subsequent couple of years, the Taiwanese ROCAF would shed a quantity of aircraft to the S-75: each RB-57s and different drones. On May possibly 1, 1960, Gary Powers’s U-two was shot down while flying more than the testing internet site close to Sverdlovsk, though it is believed to have taken 14 missiles to hit his high-flying plane. That action led to the U-2 Crisis of 1960. In addition, Chinese S-75s downed 5 ROCAF-piloted U-2s based in Taiwan.[5]
For the duration of the Cuban Missile Crisis, a U-two piloted by USAF Key Rudolf Anderson was shot down over Cuba by an S-75 in October 1962.[6]
In 1965, North Vietnam asked for some assistance against American airpower, for their own air-defense method lacked the capacity to shoot down aircraft flying at high altitude. After some discussion it was agreed to provide the PAVN with the S-75. The decision was not produced lightly, because it tremendously enhanced the chances that 1 would fall into US hands for study. Internet site preparation started early in the year, and the US detected the system almost immediately on April five, 1965. Whilst military planners pressed for the sites to be attacked just before they could turn into operational, their political leaders refused, fearing that Soviet technical employees might be killed.
On July 24, 1965, a USAF F-4C aircraft was shot down by an SA-2.[7] Three days later, the US responded with Operation Iron Hand to attack the other internet sites before they could grow to be operational. Most of the S-75 were deployed about the Hanoi-Haiphong region and were off-limits to attack (as were regional airfields) for political causes. President Lyndon Johnson announced on public Television that one particular of the other sites would be attacked the subsequent week. The Vietnamese removed the missiles and replaced them with decoys, while moving each available anti-aircraft gun into the method routes. The tactic worked, causing heavy American casualties.
The missile technique was utilised broadly throughout the world, specially in the Middle East, where Egypt and Syria utilised them to defend against the Israeli Air Force, with the air defense net accounting for the majority of the downed Israeli aircraft. The last apparent achievement appears to have occurred throughout the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), when Georgian missiles shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-27 fighter near Gudauta on March 19, 1993.
Countermeasures and counter-countermeasures
In between 1965 and 1966, the US delivered a number of options to the S-75 issue. The Navy quickly had the Shrike missile in service and mounted their first offensive strike on a internet site in October 1965. The Air Force responded by fitting B-66 bombers with effective jammers (that blinded the early warning radars) and by building smaller sized jamming pods for fighters (that denied variety info to the radars). Later developments integrated the Wild Weasel aircraft, which were fitted with anti-radiation air-to-surface missile systems made to residence in on the radar from the threat. This freed them to shoot the sites with Shrikes of their personal.
The Soviets and Vietnamese, even so, had been able to adapt to some of these tactics. The USSR upgraded the radar several occasions to enhance ECM (electronic counter measure) resistance. They also introduced a passive guidance mode, whereby the missile could lock on the jammer itself. This had an added advantage, due to the fact the radar had to be turned off, which prevented Shrikes from getting fired. Furthermore, some new techniques have been created to combat the Shrike. One particular of them was to point the radar to the side and then turn it off briefly. Because the Shrike was a relatively primitive anti-radiation missile, it would comply with the beam away from the radar and then just crash when it lost the signal (soon after the radar was turned off). One more was a &quotfalse launch&quot in which the tracking radar was turned on, but the missiles had been not really fired. This permitted the missile crew to see if the target was equipped with a Shrike. If the aircraft fired one particular, the Shrike could be neutralized with the side-pointing method without having sacrificing any S-75s.
In spite of these advances, the US was capable to come up with effective ECM packages for the B-52E models. These planes were in a position to fly raids against Hanoi with reasonably couple of losses (even though nevertheless substantial sufficient to trigger some concern see Operation Linebacker II).
Replacement systems
Soviet Air Defence Forces began to replace the S-75 with the vastly superior SA-10 and SA-12 systems in the 1980s. Today only a handful of hundred, if any, of the 4,600 missiles are nevertheless in Russian service, even though they underwent a modernization program as late as 1993.[citation necessary]
The S-75 remains in widespread service all through the globe, with some level of operational capacity in 35 countries. Vietnam and Egypt are tied for the biggest deployments at 280 missiles each and every, while North Korea has 270, and Poland has 240. The Chinese also deploy the HQ-two, an upgrade of the S-75, in relatively huge numbers.
Soviet doctrinal organization
The Soviet Union used a fairly normal organizational structure for S-75 units. Other countries that have employed the S-75 might have modified this structure. Normally, the S-75 is organized into a regimental structure with three subordinate battalions. The regimental headquarters will handle the early-warning radars and coordinate battalion actions. The battalions will include several batteries with their connected acquisition and targeting radars.
Internet site layout
Every single battalion will normally have six, semi-fixed, single-rail launchers for their V-750 missiles positioned roughly 60 to 100 m (200 to 330 ft) apart from each other in a hexagonal &quotflower&quot pattern, with radars and guidance systems placed in the center. It was this unique &quotflower&quot shape that led to the sites becoming easily recognizable in reconnaissance images. Typically another six missiles are stored on tractor-trailers near the center of the internet site.
An instance of a site can be noticed here just to the west of the junction to Bosra on the M5 motorway in Syria, south of Damascus. This location covers the borders with each Israel and Jordan, so it is of strategic importance.
Missile
V-750

V-750V 1D missile on a launcher
TypeSurface-to-air missile
Location of origin Soviet Union
Production history
VariantsV-750, V-750V, V-750VK, V-750VN, V-750M, V-750SM, V-750AK
Specifications (V-750[9])
Weight2,300 kg (five,100 lb)
Length10,600 mm (420 in)
Diameter700 mm (28 in)
WarheadFrag-HE
Warhead weight200 kg (440 lb)
Detonation
mechanismCommand
PropellantSolid-fuel booster and a storable liquid-fuel upper stage
Operational
range45 km (28 mi)
Flight altitude20,000 m (66,000 ft)
Enhance time5 s boost, then 20 s sustain
SpeedMach 3.5
Guidance
systemRadio manage guidance
Accuracy65 m
Launch
platformSingle rail, ground mounted (not mobile)
The V-750 is a two-stage missile consisting of a solid-fuel booster and a storable liquid-fuel upper stage, which burns red fuming nitric acid as the oxidizer and kerosene as the fuel. The booster fires for about 4–5 seconds and the major engine for about 22 seconds, by which time the missile is traveling at about Mach three. The booster mounts 4 big, cropped-delta wing fins that have modest handle surfaces in their trailing edges to control roll. The upper stage has smaller sized cropped-deltas close to the middle of the airframe, with a smaller sized set of manage surfaces at the extreme rear and (in most models) much smaller fins on the nose.
The missiles are guided making use of radio manage signals (sent on one of 3 channels) from the guidance computer systems at the web site. The earlier S-75 models received their commands by means of two sets of 4 modest antennas in front of the forward fins, even though the D model and later models used four significantly larger strip antennas running among the forward and middle fins. The guidance program at an S-75 internet site can handle only one particular target at a time, but it can direct three missiles against it. Further missiles could be fired against the identical target after one or much more missiles of the initial salvo had completed their run, freeing the radio channel.
The missile normally mounts a 195 kg (430 lb) fragmentation warhead, with proximity, speak to, and command fusing. The warhead has a lethal radius of about 65 m (213 ft) at decrease altitudes, but at higher altitudes the thinner atmosphere makes it possible for for a wider radius of up to 250 m (820 ft). The missile itself is correct to about 75 m (246 ft), which explains why two have been generally fired in a salvo. A single version, the SA-2E, mounted a 295 kg (650 lb) nuclear warhead of an estimated 15 Kiloton yield or a standard warhead of comparable weight.
Common variety for the missile is about 45 km (28 mi), with a maximum altitude about 20,000 m (66,000 ft). The radar and guidance technique imposed a relatively long short-variety cutoff of about 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to three,300 ft), generating them pretty safe for engagements at low level.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-75_Dvina

By Peer.Gynt on 2011-12-25 15:23:28
tagsRead Right here To See How Fitness Can Increase Your Life

Incorporating fitness into your day-to-day routine shouldn’t be intimidating. Everyone has diverse levels of fitness, and it’s ok to admit that you might be at the lowest level. This article will give workouts and ideas for all levels so that no matter your life style, fitness will soon turn into an essential part of your day.

One particular way to maximize your fitness routine is to modify the order in which you count. Undertaking so will outcome in positive pondering, and push you to do much better. It will be nearly a “downhill” effect for your brain. Pushing oneself is all about optimistic thinking and tricking your brain to perform for you.

The holiday season can wreak havoc on your workout routine. If you will develop a program it will support you keep on track. Evaluate your holiday schedule and figure out how much time you are accessible to invest functioning out. This will assist maintain you in shape for the duration of the hectic holiday season.

Fitness relies heavily on physical activity in the form of exercise. You ought to physical exercise as soon as a day for at least 30 minutes. If you initial can not workout for 30 minutes, attempt beginning with 5 minutes, then gradually work your way up to 30 each and every day. Once you attain 30 days, try undertaking far more strenuous activity or exercise for a longer time period.

To exercise your forearm muscles, try employing forearm grips. Forearm grips use a spring for resistance. You simply squeeze them and release them to physical exercise the forearm muscles. Initially, it might be challenging to squeeze the grips, but as time goes on, you should be capable to squeeze the grips additional than prior to.

Setting goals is a great way to measure personal accomplishment in your fitness program. Do you want to participate in a marathon, workout five days a week or just stroll about the neighborhood without collapsing? When you meet your objective, then set an additional objective to meet. You will be so shocked how easy it is to accomplish them. It is not as tough as you believe.

When pursuing your fitness targets, 1 great tip to stick to is to exhale powerfully at the leading of the movement when performing abdominal crunches. This tends to make your abdominal muscles operate even harder, which will give you a greater high quality ab exercise. Be confident to do this each single time you do crunches, and you will notice a difference.

Keep away from harming your neck when undertaking squats by touching the bar to the tops of your shoulders. Holding it against the reduce portion of your neck causes compression of your spine via the whole weight on just that area. This can most absolutely lead to key muscle and spinal injury that could avoid further workouts.

Weight Achieve

If you’re attempting to bulk up, start off out by going until you cannot go anymore and then getting two cups of chocolate milk. Sounds straightforward, but a group of those just beginning have been studied and it was identified that education “to failure” triggered a weight gain of five pounds in two months, but only if followed by a supplement.

Establish what you are trying to accomplish with your workouts and create it down. Maybe you are attempting to shed weight, obtain strength, or just remain young longer. Writing down what you are undertaking and why will support you keep motivated and aid you pinpoint things that you require to focus on.

Now that you have found your fitness level, you should be capable to add this to your way of life with no problems. Don’t forget, as the write-up states, to construct up and to stick with your comfort level in the beginning. Your body and well being will thank you for the alter.