THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826)
•Third President of the United States (1801-1908)
•Second Vice President, serving with John Adams, even though they have been from distinct political parties (1797-1801)
•First Secretary of State
•Primary author of the Declaration of Independence
•Delegate to the Continental Congress
•Governor of Virginia (1779-1781)
•Founder of the University of Virginia (in Charlottesville)
•Experimental planter who began the wine industry in Virginia
•Architect who submitted styles anonymously for both the Capitol and the White House
•Inventor who invented wire coat hangers, swivel chairs and sliding doors
•Cornerstone laid in 1939
•Dedicated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt on April 13, 1943 — the 200th anniversary of Jefferson’s birth
•Original architect, John Russell Pope, envisioned a memorial twice this size his partners scaled it down following taking over the project on Pope’s death
•Classical design, modelled right after Jefferson’s design and style of the Rotunda of the University of Virginia, which Jefferson primarily based on the Pantheon in Rome
•The 26 Ionic columns symbolize the 26 states in the Union at the end of Jefferson’s terms as president . The addition of the territory provided in the Louisiana Acquire gave rise to the 13 extra states.
•The carving on the tympanum (triangular section of the pediment over the entrance to the memorial) was developed by Adolph Alexander Weinman it represents the 5-man committee assigned by the Continental Congress to draft the Declaration of Independence the figures from left to right are:
Thomas Jefferson (standing)
•FDR asked that the memorial be placed so he could see it from the White Home and achieve inspiration if you stand with your back to Jefferson, you can see the White Home across the Tidal Basin by means of the trees
•Designed by Rudolph Evans
•19 feet tall, created of bronze
•Jefferson is posed as if he were addressing the Continental Congress
•In his left hand he holds a copy of the Declaration of Independence
•He is wearing a coat offered to him by Tadeusz Kosciuszko, Polish patriot who fought in the Revolutionary War
•The bronze statue was not installed when the Memorial was committed a war-time limit on civilian use of bronze prohibited its casting a full-size plaster statue was placed right here which the bronze statue replaced in 1948
The Carved Texts
•The texts carved on the interior walls of the memorial are excerpts from numerous writings of Jefferson
•Behind the statue and to the correct is an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence
•Immediately to your right as you enter the rotunda is an excerpt from the Act for Religious Freedom written by Jefferson and passed by the Virginia legislature — Jefferson regarded this act to be one particular of his three most essential accomplishments
•Immediately to your left as you enter the rotunda are six quotations from Jefferson’s letters and notes on slavery and education
•Behind the statue and to the left are quotations on government taken from a letter written to Samuel Kercheval in 1816
•The quotation encircling the base of the dome was taken from a letter written to Benjamin Rush in 1800
The Jefferson Memorial is a monument in Washington, DC to Thomas Jefferson. It combines a low neo-classical saucer dome with a portico.
By 1930, there were monuments in Washington commemorating excellent United States presidents such as Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. President Franklin Roosevelt believed that Thomas Jefferson also deserved a monument.
In 1934, following his initiative, Congress passed a resolution to produce a monument commemorating Jefferson. The memorial was designed by John Russell Pope (1874 – 1937), the architect of the original (west) constructing of the National Gallery of Art. It reflects characteristics of buildings developed by Jefferson such as Monticello and the Rotunda, which were a result of his fascination with Roman architecture. It bears a close resemblance to the Pantheon of Rome. The cornerstone was laid in 1939 and the monument cost slightly far more than $three million. It was officially dedicated in 1943, right after Pope’s death. One particular of the final American public monuments in the Beaux-Arts tradition, it was severely criticized even as it was being built, by those who adhered to the modernist argument that dressing 20th-century buildings like Greek and Roman temples constituted a "tired architectural lie." More than 60 years ago, Pope responded with silence to critics who dismissed him as component of an enervated architectural elite practicing "styles that are safely dead".
The Thomas Jefferson Memorial, modeled soon after the Pantheon of Rome, is America’s foremost memorial to our third president. As an original adaptation of Neoclassical architecture, it is a key landmark in the monumental core of Washington, DC The circular, colonnaded structure in the classic style was introduced to this nation by Thomas Jefferson. Architect John Russell Pope utilised Jefferson’s own architectural tastes in the design and style of the Memorial. His intention was to synthesize Jefferson’s contribution as a statesman, architect, President, drafter of the Declaration of Independence, adviser of the Constitution and founder of the University of Virginia. Architects Daniel P. Higgins and Otto R. Eggers took more than construction upon the untimely death of Pope in August 1937. The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Commission was produced to direct the erection of a memorial to Thomas Jefferson by an Act of Congress authorized in June 1934. The present-day place at the Tidal Basin was chosen in 1937. The website triggered considerable public criticism because it resulted in the removal of Japanese flowering cherry trees from the Tidal Basin. Further controversy surrounded the choice of the design of the Memorial. The Commission of Fine Arts objected to the pantheon design and style since it would compete with the Lincoln Memorial. The Thomas Jefferson Commission took the design controversy to President Franklin D. Roosevelt who preferred the pantheon design and gave his permission to proceed. On November 15, 1939, a ceremony was held in which President Roosevelt laid the cornerstone of the Memorial.
In 1941, Rudolph Evans was commissioned to sculpt the statue of Thomas Jefferson. The statue of Jefferson appears out from the interior of the Memorial toward the White Residence. It was intended to represent the Age of Enlightenment and Jefferson as a philosopher and statesman. The bronze statue is 19 feet tall and weighs 5 tons. Adolph A. Weinman’s sculpture of the five members of the Declaration of Independence drafting committee submitting their report to Congress is featured on the triangular pediment. Also noteworthy, and adorning the interior of the Memorial, are five quotations taken from Jefferson’s writings that illustrate the principles to which he dedicated his life.
Handful of key adjustments have been made to the Memorial considering that its dedication in 1943. The most important change to note is the replacement of the plaster model statue of Thomas Jefferson by the bronze statue right after the Planet War II restrictions on the use of metals had been lifted. Every single year the Jefferson Memorial plays host to different ceremonies, such as annual Memorial workouts, Easter Sunrise Services and the ever-common Cherry Blossom Festival. The Jefferson Memorial is administered and maintained by the National Park Service.
•Ground breaking: December 15, 1938.
•Architect: John Russell Pope.
•Cornerstone laid: November 15, 1939.
•Sculpture of Jefferson statue: Rudolph Evans.
•Sculpture of relief above entrance: A.A. Wineman.
•Total cost: $3,192,312.
•Size of grounds: two.5 acres (1.0117 hectare, 10117.1 square meters).
•Estimated Weight: 32,000 tons.
•Height from road to prime of dome: 129 feet, four inches (39.42 meters).
•Height from floor to ceiling of dome: 91 feet, 8 inches (27.94 meters).
•Height from floor to prime of dome – exterior: 95 feet, eight inches (29.16 meters).
•Thickness of dome: four feet (1.22 meters).
•Weight of memorial: 32,000 tons (29029.9 metric tons).
•Piers to bedrock (maximum depth): 138 feet, three inches (42.14 meters).
•Ceiling: Indiana limestone.
•Exterior walls and columns: Danby Imperial Marble (Vermont).
•Interior floor: Tennessee pink marble.
•Interior wall panels: Georgian white marble.
•Pedestal: Missouri gray marble.
•Statue Height: 19 feet (five.79 meters).
•Height of pedestal: six feet (1.83 meters).
•Statue Weight: 10,000 pounds (4535.92 kilograms).
By dbking on 2005-08-ten 08:37:19
Out Of Shape? Use These Suggestions To Get Lean Again
Though physical fitness is something that most men and women dread, it can in fact be really enjoyable. Once you know some very good and enjoyable ways to stay fit, fitness will turn into some thing that you can look forward to. This article will give you some good ideas on how to keep fit and how to make fitness enjoyable.
It is greatest not to function out when your are ill, unless you only have a slight cold. Reserving your body’s energy when you are ill, will assist the healing procedure, and get you back to full strength faster.
Make confident that you drink a minimum of sixty-4 ounces of water every day to insure that your physique stays properly hydrated. You ought to also drink an added sixteen ounces of water for each and every hour of moderate or high intensity exercise that you perform. You never want to danger your physique becoming dehydrated.
Involve your complete family members in obtaining match. Select active items to do for weekend entertainment, or go for an evening walk after dinner. If you instill fitness as element of every day life to your youngsters now, they will be much less probably to be overweight or unhealthy later in life.
A great way to support you get fit is to commence drinking coffee ahead of your workouts. The caffeine will offer you with a increase of power that will give you a greater exercise. Keep away from getting coffee drinks from locations such as Starbucks simply because their drinks have a tendency to be loaded with sugar and fat.
Jumping jacks are a classic calisthenic exercising that you can do. All you have to do is jump and separate your arms and legs. Then jump once again and return to a typical standing position. Repeat this about 20 to 25 occasions a day. If you happen to be a tiny more athletic, you can improve the number of jacks.
A great fitness tip is to comply with a set order when working out. First, use dumbbells. Then, use barbells. Lastly, use machines. You use this order since dumbbells focus on the smaller, stabilizer muscles that fatigue quicker than the bigger muscle tissues. After your smaller muscles are exhausted, move on to the machines to hit the bigger muscle groups.
Do not schedule normal periods of rest and recovery in the course of your exercise sessions. As an alternative, take periodic breaks only when you really feel that you require them, regardless of the time spent performing workouts. Nonetheless, you must rest less often in the earlier stages of your exercise system, then far more regularly as you begin to grow fatigued. Otherwise, you danger cutting your total workout time down unnecessarily.
If you want to take your running to the next level, incorporate weights and strength education in your daily exercise. A number of studies have shown that runners who add in standard strength training for at least two months are able to cut an typical of thirty seconds from their greatest time.
If you are attempting to bulk up, begin out by going until you can not go any longer and then possessing two cups of chocolate milk. Sounds straightforward, but a group of these just starting have been studied and it was located that coaching “to failure” brought on a weight achieve of five pounds in two months, but only if followed by a supplement.
Establish what you are attempting to accomplish with your workouts and write it down. Possibly you are trying to shed weight, achieve strength, or just keep young longer. Writing down what you are performing and why will assist you stay motivated and assist you pinpoint things that you need to have to focus on.
As was stated earlier, fitness can be a great and entertaining point. It can be anything that you appear forward to. Use suggestions that you have learned from these suggestions to assist make fitness some thing that will be enjoyable. Prior to long, you will be searching forward to your day-to-day fitness time.